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Zaid bin Haritha


His identification: He is the beloved of the last Prophet, Mohamed and the father of Osama bin Zaid. His father is Haritha bin Shoraheel bin Abdul’Uzza, Al-Kalbi, Al-Qodaii, and his mother is Soda bint Thaalaba bin Yaroub, Al-Qahtaniyah. At s the age of eight, Zaid was kidnapped from the hands of his mother and sold as a slave at the market of Habasha, near Mecca, to Hakim bin Hizam bin Khuwaylid, who presented him as a gift to his aunt, Khadija. She, in her turn, preferred to give him to her husband, Mohamed, to be his slave. All of that was before Mohamed’s prophecy. Nevertheless, fate chose that boy to be one of those whose names shined beside Mohamed at the start of his message and his call. So, he got the chance to contribute to the task of changing the course of human history.

His kidnapping and selling: As a small child and while his mother was carrying him on her way to visit her family, Zaid bin Haritha was forcibly taken from her hands to be sold in slave markets. His people used poetry and prose as grieving at their loss; such as his father, Haritha bin Sharaheel, who expressed in a poem of grief how much he cried on Zaid, because he did not know whether his son was already dead or alive, so might come back one day.

The son of Mohamed: A group of Zaid’s folk, who visited Mecca to worship or to do some business, saw Zaid and identified him. When they returned, they told his father about it. Haritha, accompanied by his brother, traveled to Mecca and offered Mohamed a sum of money in redemption of Zaid. Mohamed replied that he would call Zaid and allow him to choose. If Zaid wished to return with them, Mohamed would release him without accepting any ransom in exchange. But, if Zaid chose him, Mohamed swear to Allah he would not let down someone who chose hin. Zaid said that he swear to Allah he would never choose any one beside Mohamed. Then, his father asked him: “Zaid, did you choose slavery to freedom, your father and your uncle?” Just after that, Mohamed took them to the Kaaba, where Quraish Forums took place, and said: “Witness that Zaid becomes my son, with mutual rights of inheritance,” making him his adopted son. So, people started to call him Zaid bin Mohamed. After receiving generous hospitality from the family of Mohamed, Zaid’s father and uncle were satisfied, though they returned home without him.

Prophet’s boy: Under sponsorship of his adoptive parents, Mohamed and Khadija, “Zaid bin Mohamed” had a happy reassuring life in Mecca, as one of boys of Bani Hashim, Mohamed’s clan. When he reached the age of men, Mohamed married him with Umm Ayman, his nanny, who gave birth of Zaid’s son, Osama. With the first precursors of prophecy, Zaid was the third of the first three persons to accept Islam, namely Mohamed, Khadija and Zaid. Then, he was usually near Mohamed and hardly separated with him, in day or night or at ease or difficulty. With Mohamed, Zaid lived all details and circumstances of reporting the message of Allah; such as mockery of rejecters; turning away of delegations, tribes and markets; blockade imposed by the Quraish on Bani Hashim and Bani Al-Muttalib at the mountain; trip to Taif; burial of his wife, Khadijah and his uncle, Abu Talib, in the year of grief; the two (Akabas) obstacles; following him in migration to Almadina and the fraternity between immigrants and supporters.

Abolition of adoption: At Almadina, Prophet Mohamed married his adoptive son, Zaid with Zainab bint Jahsh, his cousin (daughter of his aunt.) But, this new marriage life took a stumble, as they could not get along with each other, leading them to divorce. The Prophet married his adoptive son, Zaid with another woman, namely Umm Kulthum bint Uqba. Then, something was not in the account has occurred. On orders of Allah, the Prophet married Zainab, ex-wife of his adoptive son, Zaid, nullifying of adoption and its requirements practiced by the Arabs before Islam. Verses of the Quran came denying paternity of Mohamed, the Messenger of Allah and the Last Prophet, of any man, and ordering lineage of people to their real fathers, and if their fathers were unknown, they are brothers in religion and loyalty. So, people returned to call him Zaid bin Haritha, in lineage to his father, Haritha.

His conquests and military expeditions: Zaid bin Haritha was one of the famous archers among the Prophet’s Companions, who participated with Mohamed in most of his important battles and did well in all of them. He bravely fought at the battles of interval major Badr, Uhud, Trench and Khaybar, and was present at Al-Hudaybiyah. The Prophet has sent in command of several military expeditions. The first of which was Al-Qarada. Some others were Al-Jamum, Al-‘Is, Al-Taraf, Hisma and Al-Fadafid. The last of his military expeditions was Mu’tah, where Zaid was killed. In Jumada al-awwal 8 A.H., Mohamed sent a military expedition to the frontiers of Al-Balqa, Levant. He chose three of his Companions for its leadership, as he said, in farewell of the army, that first-in-command was Zaid bin Haritha, the second-in-command was Jafar bin Abi Talib and the third-in-command was Abdullah bin Rawahah. At the town of Mu’tah, in Al-Balqa, the fight was intensified with the Byzantines. The three leaders of Muslim army fell martyrs one after the other as they took command of the force, before Khalid took command of the battle and put a withdrawal plan.

His status: Zaid bin Haritha was one of the first people to accept Islam and the most sincere person with the Prophet during his call, migration and bottles. Zaid was Mohamed’s secretary, his colleague, commander of his military expeditions and knight of his conquests. The Prophet used to get happier when meet or see Zaid, as well as to miss him when leave. As Allah invalidated the adoption, Zaid was deeply sorry for his loss of the great lineage to Mohamed, but Allah, in compensation, mentioned solely his name in the Quran. When the Prophet visited his family to offer condolences after his martyrdom and the weeping daughter of Zaid hugged him, it was the only time that the Prophet wept until he sobbed, which he described as yearning of the lover for the beloved. This was because Zaid bin Haritha was one of dearest people to Mohamed’s heart, before and after Islam.

Osama bin Zaid: He was one of dearest people to the Prophet after the martyrdom of his father, Zaid bin Haritha, as being called the beloved, son of the beloved. Osama was born a Muslim to his mother, Umm Ayman, one of the first Muslim women. Osama bin Zaid has grown upon ethics of Islam. The Prophet loved him and said about him: “Among all people, I like Osama the most.” His wife, Fatima bint Qais, was chosen to him by the Prophet himself. When Osama visited Mohamed during illness in which the Prophet died, he called Allah for him. Osama wanted to take part in the Battle of Uhud, but the Prophet did not allow him, due his young age, before he was permitted in the Battle of the Trench, at the age of fifteen years. Then, he participated in Mu’tah, the military expedition where his father, Zaid bin Haritha was martyred, and in the Battle of Hunayn. During his illness, the Prophet put Osama in command on an army that contained Abu Bakr and Omar. So, some people marveled and said that it was too much for him. Upon hearing this, the Prophet Mohamed said: “If you contest his leadership, then you did contest the leadership of his father before him. And indeed, by Allah, he was certainly fit for leadership, and he was of the most beloved of people to me, and this one is among the most beloved of people to me after him.”

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