Morality is the character, the temper, the merits, and the other meanings and qualities stable in the mind. They constitute gauges and scales on the light of which and with its criteria the act is approved or disapproved, and accordingly the person makes it or abstains to do it. It has great impact on human behavior and what he does, so that one can say that human behavior is only materialization of meanings and moral tempers settling in the individual’s mind.
Thus, each quality implicit in the heart, appears inevitably on the body’s extremities, which barely move, but according to them, even if the acts are connected to the consciences, like the link between the branches and the roots; if the root is good, the branch goes well and if the root is corrupted the branch is decayed. It results thereon that the acts are good if the morality is good and for this reason the reformers’ approach to correct the people’s behavior and prepare them for good life begins by reforming and purifying souls and to instilling meanings of morality therein. This is emphasized by the texts of Islam, requiring changing what is in the souls, to change the societies’ conditions, between happiness and misery, ease and pinch of poverty, prosperity and misery, glory and humiliation.
There is no disagreement between the different ways, philosophies, religions and human visions in considering ethics an essential datum in the scale of valuable references, though the moral outlook of every human community is based on the idiosyncrasies that make its conception of the universe and life and determines to man himself his place in that perception, as part of the universe and a single of the life’s components, on which the society building is founded in its different dimensions.
In order to make the moral system Islamic, it must be based entirely on the vision provided by the last message, for the universe and existence. It is an unique conception in which the human being, individual and group, constitutes the central axis and the Justice, for which messengers were sent and books revealed, represents the supreme destination and the Holy Prophet sent to perfect morality and who has sublime morals, and who is exclusively the best example of good.
The justice, Not materialize justice, which is the supreme destination of the canons, is never materialized, apart from the principle of equality, since peoples originate from Adam, and Adam is from clay, and they are equal like the comb’s teeth, and the measure of their differentiation is one exclusively, namely the extent of their compliance with the Creator’s prohibitions (devotion). There is no consideration in measuring the man’s value, to his color, language, race or tribe or lineage, or his or social status, or poverty or wealth, or his political position or choices, since Allah does not look at any of those images and colors, but the people’s hearts and actions are the subject of the Almighty’ supervision.
In order to discern the concept of moral system in Islam, it is worth for us to go beyond considering morality as just part of the overall system of Islam, to the fact that it represents the essence of Islam and its living spirit in all its aspects and parts. In fact, the exclusive goal of the message the sublime morals’ owner is to perfect the good morality and the best complete believers in faith are those who have the best morals… Were the Islamic faith’s pillars but moral incentives? The exigencies of the monotheism word, starting with the oneness of Allah, His might, names and attributes, passing through the Angels and their jobs in the sovereignty, the Passengers and the revelation of Allah that they transmitted, to the position of accountability and punishment and penalty, in the Resurrection Day. Such a doctrine is worthy to carry the soul voluntarily to the best and noblest ethics.
Were the rites, which represent four-fifths of Islam, established but to constitute repeated exercises to accustom the believer to life with good morality and to maintain those morals, no matter what the circumstances have changed around him? Praying is remembering, praising and thanking Allah. It forbids indecency and evil, keeps away from the vices, cleanses of bad words and deeds and teaches humility. Zakat cleanses from reprehensible qualities, purifies by good morals, instills feelings of goodness and develops the spirit of solidarity and interdependence. Fasting cultivates devotion, which the overall morality, educates the soul, elevates the spirit, and protects against vices. The pilgrimage cleanses and purifies from obscenity and immorality and averts the whim, the desires and the devil!
As for laws and criteria of licit and forbidden, in the society’s various segments (transactions), the researcher does not need a great effort to discover that the purposes of all legal provisions in the renewable space that knows no bounds, are essentially moral aims, regulated by the general permanent rule: “bringing and improving good and benefit and warding and lessening evil and prejudice.” Thus, Islam’s beliefs, rituals and laws are connected by the moral link in any case.
Islam does not limit to invite his followers to follow the noble moral, in a public call, but its texts detail that in their varieties and types, the virtuous and reprehensible ones, so that people do not differ thereon, and the desires interfere in identifying them. The sublime morality is what was good, in word or deed, Islam has linked it to meanings of faith, devotion, goodness, fairness, good and pure things, spending and giving, fulfillment of the covenant and the promise of patience in obedience and against sin, and patience in pain and adversity and throughout all periods of panics.
Like all the Islamic systems, the moral system in Islam is founded on a complete system of bases and pillars, from which it takes its legitimacy, continuity and persistence, and effectiveness in influencing the life, and the most important of these four bases and pillars, are:
– The faith basis: with all what it needs of certainty with no doubt at all in the Islamic faith’s pillars, namely believe in Allah and His angels and His books and his Messengers and the Last Day and the Doom good and evil, with the awareness the purpose of the verification of those faith’s beliefs is not just getting knowledge of them, but also accompanying their keep pace with its effective impact in the universe and life.
– The scientific basis: where the values of science, mind, knowledge and right should be the foundation of culture in the Muslim community as a whole, and especially religious and social education, away from alienation, blind mimicry legends past’s rumination, in order to orient the society’s all energies to scientific research, truth’s pursuit and discovery of the effects of Allah’s grace and mercy in the universe.
– The factual basis: In Islam, all moral frameworks are embedded by knowledge of human nature, and its acceptance as Allah created it. A the top of this we have the duality of spirit and matter, followed by Life in this world and the Hereafter, the relativity of happiness and misery, and the fair balance for the equilibrium of material and spiritual satisfaction. This is Allah’s creature and there is neither contradiction nor opposition between Allah’s creature and Allah’s command, between morality and nature.
– The liability’s basis: It is based on the act’s acknowledgement, readiness to assume the results of the decisions and choices, and their responsibility, intent will and intention, and behavior and the preferential act. In this enter the fulfillment of commitments, whatever are the consequences and costs, complying with promises and rendering back the trusts. The moral commitment represents the most prominent landmarks of individual responsibility, before Allah, conscience and society
A review of the revelation’s texts highlights the range of manifestations of Allah’s mercy, since this revelation shows to His servants what they do and what they abstain from. Among this we have the list of noble ethics recommended, and that of reprehensible forbidden morals:
Examples of good morals: absolute justice, charity in all things, reverence in prayer, turning away from vain discourse, giving the Zakat, guarding one’s modesty, disregarding, hiding one’s adornment, rendering back the trusts, giving to the relatives, honoring the commitment and performing the promise, cooperation in righteousness and devotion, patience, honesty, enjoining what is good, fortitude on the right, obeying always, walking on earth in humility, turning away from the ignorant, modesty, clemency and patience, kindness, strength, determination, friendly relations, compassion, empathy.
Examples of bad morals: polytheism, saying without knowledge, walking with fun and arrogance, extravagance and prodigality, stinginess and miserliness, cooperation in oppression and aggression, injustice which is darkness in the Day of Resurrection, slanderous lies, arrogance and wonder, avarice, pride, hypocrisy, rancor and hatred, ridicule, insults scandal- mongering and backbitering, calling each other by offensive nicknames, suspicion since some of it is sin, spyware, speaking ill of each other, open and secret sin, anger, hypocrisy and reputation, entering into controversy and dispute, vulgar tongue, vanity and avarice, disgrace and shame.
Finally, among the characteristics of the moral system in Islam we have inclusiveness, which means that Islamic morality circuit is very wide, covering all the Man’s actions, for himself, or related to other, whether an individual, a group or a state. Nothing of that comes out of the ethics’ circle, and the obligation to comply with, which is unparalleled in any other system, and even in the Islamic state’s relations with other countries, you must comply with the ethics and maintain their meanings; contrary to what is commonly spread among the people and supported by the reality, that relations between states are not based on observance of morality, so that some ones’ slogan has become: “no place for morality in international relations”. For this reason, deceit, deception perfidy and lie dominate policy; but Islam rejects this ill vision, and considers that what is beautiful or ugly in the relationships between individuals remains similar in relations with communities and states.