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Prophet Mohamed

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“He is the last of messengers and prophets and the fifth of those of determination among the messengers. His message is Islam and Iman (having faith in Allah.) His way is justice and charity. His call is for human liberation. His people are every human and jinni. His miracle is Quran.”

His name and lineage: He is Mohamed bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Muttalib bin Abd Manaf bin Qusai bin Kilab bin Murrah ibn Ka’b bin Loay bin Ghalib bin Fahr bin Malik bin Al-nadr bin Khuzaymah bin Mudrikah bin Elias bin Mudar Bin Nizar bin Maiid bin Adnan; from the descendants of Ishmael, the grandfather of Arabized Arabs, who built Kaaba with his father, Abraham.

Mohammed’s birth: He was born near the Kaaba in Mecca, on the morning of Monday the twelfth (12) of Rabi’ Alawal, fifty three (53) years before his Hijra (migration,) corresponding twenty second of April, five hundred and seventy one (571) AD. It was the same year in which Abraha, the Ethiopian governor of Yemen, invaded Mecca with an army led by elephants, aiming to destroy the Kaaba. Protecting the Kaaba, Allah sent flocks of birds that threw hot stones upon him and his army, perishing most of them and badly ripping the rest. So, security returned to Mecca, preparing to receive Mohamed.

His sponsorship: With a dead father, he came to life as an orphan. So his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, hired Halima As’Saadia, from the desert of Hijaz, to breast-feed him. She witnessed inconceivable phenomena with him. Completing almost six years of age, he lost his mother, Amina bint Wehib. Then, at the age of eighth, his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, died. So his uncle, Abu Talib, took care of him and well raised him on virtues. So he grew up a humble, generous, kind, brave, loyal and patient person.

His upbringing: Mohamed used to go out with his friends to earn a living, working as a shepherd or any other salaried job. Taking Mohamed with him once in a trade to the Levant, his uncle saw paranormals around him and heard from the people of the book some annunciation about his future. So he returned with him to Mecca and increased his safeguard for Mohamed very much. Reaching the age of men, Mohamed was committed, modest, chaste, sincere, honest, reluctant to sins, leaving idols and with well admired behavior, words and deeds.

Educated by his Lord: Mohamed was called mostly by his title name, the “honest” (Alamin,) and was known for his hatred of idols. He was never involved with the youth of Mecca for their fun and guiltiness; however he used to participate with adults in public affairs. He took part with his uncles in war of Alfujar between the northern and the southern Arabs and attended the “Al Fodool confederacy or coalition” to aid the oppressed. Moreover, Quraish, his tribe, made him the judge to decide who was to put “the black stone” back in its place as rebuilding the Kaaba, saving their blood after unsheathing of swords.

Commerce of Khadija: Khadija bint Khuwaylid was among the elite of Quraish women, who worked in commerce and competed with men in this business. She used to hire men to manage convoys of her trade. The well praised biography of Mohamed drew her attention, so she offered him to go in a convoy of hers to the Levant, promising to give him the best she has ever given to others. He accepted her offer and was accompanied by her slave, Meyssara. The profits of this convoy highly doubled what she used to earn in all previous convoys.

His marriage: Meyssara brought to Khadija a detailed report about the qualities of Mohamed; his chastity, sincerity, honesty and humility. As her admiration for him increased, Khadija decided not waste time, immediately sending a friend of her to Mohamed to tell him her desire to marry him, so he accepted. After discussing the matter with his uncle, Mohamed sent to Khadija’s uncle proposing to marry her. The forty years old woman married the twenty five years old young man, with a dowry of twenty camels. The family lived a good life and got children.

Hira: At about the age of forty, Mohamed liked seclusion, outdoors and reflection of what Allah created. To do that, he chose a high cave called Hira in the “Mountain of Light” in Mecca, four km away from the Kaaba. He used to stay there many nights, got down to circle the Ka’bah and pay a visit to his family to take his supplies for exactly the same. He kept like that until Allah chose him as a prophet for all people and revealed to him the first verses of Al-Alaq (the Clot.)

His mission: Mohamed was sent as a prophet on Monday night, the twenty first of the holy month of Ramadan, forty years after the “elephant” incident; which corresponds to the tenth of August, six hundred and ten (610) AD. His age then was forty lunar years, six months and twelve days; which is equivalent of thirty nine (39) calendar years, three (3) months, and twenty two (22) days.

Beginning of revelation: The first meeting between Mohamed and the ambassador of revelation was in the cave; when the angel came in, without greeting or talking, and delivered to Mohamed Allah’s command: {Recite}, but Mohamed was not a reader, so he said: “I cannot read.” The angel caught him (forcibly,) pressed him so hard that he could not bear it anymore and released him, once, then twice, repeating the same command and hearing the same answer. At the third time, he red and Mohamed repeated after him: {Recite in the name of your Lord who created * Created man from a clinging substance * Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous * Who taught by the pen * Taught man that which he knew not.}

Consolation from Khadija: The scene ended as Gabriel revealing his identity and announcing the message of Mohamed: “O Mohamed! You are the Messenger of Allah; and I am Gabriel.” Mohamed returned with these words, frightened, and entered his house saying: “Cover me! Cover me!” After his fear went, he complained to Khadija, who consulated him, launching her immortal saying: “Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your Kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the deserving calamity-afflicted ones.”

Waraqa bin Naufal: Khadija took Mohamed to her cousin, Waraqa bin Naufal, who had been Christian, learnt the book and became a rabbi. He had reached a very old age. When Mohamed told him what he saw, Waraqa did not hesitate and said: “This is the same one who keeps the secrets (angel Gabriel) whom Allah had sent to Moses.” Then he told Mohamed that his people would turn him out and drive him out of them, showing sigh that he would not be present to strongly support him.

Continuity of revelation: Mohamed went frequently to the cave, after revelation of the first verses of Al-Alaq (the Clot), which carried the first divine commands to Mohamed and his nation, “read.” On the road between Hira and his house, he saw Gabriel in the angelic status, totally filling up the horizon. Because of the horror of the scene, Mohamed fell unconscious. When he woke up, he rushed to his family, repeating: “Wrap me (in blankets)! Wrap me!” Then Allah revealed the first verses of Al-Muddathir (the Cloaked One,) including an explicit assignment of calling to Allah and performing some duties.

The first to believe: Khadija bint Khuwaylid was the first person Mohamed spoke to about the message, so she believed, becoming the first of all women to Islam. When the boy Ali bin Abu Talib believed, he was the first of youth. The first of ex-slaves to believe was Zaid bin Haritha, who was a slave of Khadija whom she gave as a gift to Mohamed who liberated and adopted him. Then Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah believed, making him the first of noble men.

The house of Al-Arqam: The call or daawa (preaching for Islam) started in a secret form, to protect it. The focus was on the relatives of Mohamed and his friends, then friends of friends. The revelation spoke about faith, the message, Resurrection, Heaven, Hell and renouncing idols, sins, evils and injustices. When the believers were about thirty (30,) Mohamed chose for them the house of Al-Arqam bin Abi al-Arqam, to be the first school and center in Islam.

The call going public: After three years, Mohamed was ordered to call his clan to Islam. As Mohamed gathered them together and called them to Islam, Abu Talib declared his support of him, and the rest of them spoke well about him except for Abu Lahab, who severely spoke with the prophet, so revelation came with Al-Masad (the Palm Fiber,) a chapter of Quran. Then Mohamed was ordered to go public with the call, as Allah was sufficient for him against the mockers. So, revelation began to state demerits of falsehood and falsity of ignorance; then the stage of harm and confrontation started.

Harm from idolaters: The eminent elite of Quraish encountered the call of Islam, in defense of their interests and position status which they obtained through taking care of the Kaaba and idols. They agreed to do harm to Mohamed and sent their weak-minded on him, despite the protection of Bani Hashim, his clan. The harm, torture and murder vulnerable people have suffered from was unbearable. So Mohamed gave them permission to immigrate and refuge to Abyssinia, as its king ruled without injustice.

The blockade in the Shi’ib: The total harm of idolaters reached its climax, signing a pact of comprehensive boycott of Bani Hashim and Bani Al-Muttalib, Mohamed’s folk, which they hung in the Kaaba, to earn the title of a serious covenant. So they tightened their siege and blockade of the Hashemites in the mountain, after confiscation of all their possessions. After three successive years, a group of people, whose conscience was awakened, masterminded to break the pact, so boycott, siege and blockade were ended.

Temptations: After breaking the siege, polytheists began negotiations with Abu Talib on what Mohamed wanted to give up his call, at any price. They offered him, by his uncle, money, wealth, power and pleasures. His response was, at any time, that if they put the sun in his right hand and the moon in the left, he would not give up his call until Allah made it victor or he died for it.

The year of grief: Ten years after the mission, Abu Talib, Mohamed’s uncle and his protector, died. Soon later, his wife, Khadija, passed away, as well. With their death, the doors of the call to Mohamed and his companions were narrowed, so that year was called the year of grief. The harm of idolaters was intensified and the blockade on the call was tightened. Then, Mohamed decided to transfer his call outside Mecca, for the first time, going to another city and asking them to protect him until he deliver the message of his Lord.

To Taif: Mohamed headed very invisibly and cautiously to Taif, accompanied by his adopted son, Zaid, hoping to be the land of good and Islam. But he was received with cynicism, cruelty and bad manners. They enticed their weak-minded to attack him, so he was wounded and blood flew from his body. Outside Taif he sat, worrying but determining to continue delivering the message of Islam despising all odds.

In the vicinity (immunity) of Almitaam: Heading back to Mecca, Mohamed knew that the idolaters were waiting for him, wanting to prevent him from entering Mecca, by any cost. So he sent to Almitaam bin Adi bin Nawfal, requesting for his immunity. Almitaam called his sons and they prepared their weapons, invited Mohamed to enter and announced at the Kaaba that he was in their immunity.

The Isra and Mi’raj (two parts of a Night Journey:) Returning from his hard trip to Taif and entering a disbelieving neighborhood in Mecca, Mohamed needed a strengthening and honoring dose. The matter required a miracle that went beyond capacities of human beings. So Mohamed was taken, at night, from the Sacred Mosque to Al-Aqsa Mosque (the Isra) and was ascended to heavens (the Mi’raj.) There he spoke with Allah and met prophets and messengers, and the signs of the realm were revealed to him, returning that night with the obligation of the Salat (Islamic prayer.)

The first obstacle (Akaba:) With the miracle of Isra and Mi’raj, the controversy of rejecters was renewed, the faith of believers got enhanced and the aversion of unbelievers increased. In the immunity of Almitaam, Mohamed focused on the new arriving people in seasons and markets, until he met six men from Yathrib, to whom Mohamed presented Islam and recited some verses of Quran, so they accepted and converted to Islam. The next year, among a delegation that heard the call of Mohamed, they returned, witnessing the allegiance of the first obstacle (Akaba.)

The biggest obstacle (Akaba:) Mohamed sent Musab bin Omair, who was a reader and one of the first Muslims, with the delegation. On his hands, Islam enormously and rapidly spread in all houses of Yathrib. The following season, seventy three men and two women (all of them were from the Aws and Khazraj clans) pledged allegiance of the biggest obstacle (Akaba.) They gave him their word to save and prevent him as they did to themselves once he immigrated to them.

Conspiracy of assassination: Quraish gathered to prevent Mohamed from catching up with those who pledged allegiance of the biggest obstacle. After discussing the matter, assassination of the Prophet was their decision. In order to disperse his blood in their tribes, they collected a gang from each one of their clans, to which they gave weapons, asking to kill him with a single hit at the chosen night of execution. Mohamed went out of his house towards them, reciting the first verses of Ya-Sin. The gang members fell asleep until the sun rose, so they broke into the house but it was Ali who they found in the bed of Mohamed.

Migration: Mohamed passed by Abu Bakr, and together they got out through a small window in the back of house towards the mountain of Thor, where they got into a cave in which they stayed for three nights until the search for them stopped. During that period, Abu Bakr took responsibilities of rations, camouflage and bringing news. At the dawn of the third day, Aamir and Ibn Uraikit brought the camels. In their way to Yathrib, they took safe and rugged paths that no foot ever touched.

The prize: When men of Quraysh reached the cave, cobwebs and dove’s nest were closing its entrance, so they went searching in another place. Announcing a prize of one hundred camels for whoever found the way to Mohamed, the Bedouins eagerly searched the area for him, and among them was Suraga bin Malik. Suraga was about to get the prize, but his horse tumbled, bringing him down. He then asked for safety and returned back.

The three mosques: Mohamed arrived to Quba, at the houses of clan of Bani Amr bin Auf, where he established the Quba Mosque. Then he walked to Almadina (previously known as Yathrib.) As he was in the valley of Ranona, at the houses of clan of Bani Salim bin Auf, Mohamed prayed with them the first Friday prayer in Islam. The second mosque in Almadina was built in that place. Finally, when the Prophet arrived to the center of Almadina, he built the Al-Masjid Nabawi, Prophet’s mosque.

Constitution of  Almadina: Mohamed’s second step in Almadina was fraternity between immigrants (Muhajireen) and supporters (Ansar.) His third step was promulgation of the contract of Almadina, a constitution to govern a peaceful coexistence of a community of multi religions, cultures and races, on the basis of citizenship, equality, justice and human ties.

Prophet’s campaigns: During a thirteen years period of persecution in Mecca, Allah did not authorize Muslims to fight to defend themselves. After they migrated to Almadina, the ban from fighting continued, for nearly two years. Then the fight was permitted for those who were expelled from their homes and properties, because of their beliefs. So the Prophet lunched campaigns and invasions to restore the usurped rights, to counter the aggression and lift injustice and to save vulnerable people.

Pledge of Ridwan (the Approval:) In the sixth year (6) after Migration, corresponding to six hundred twenty eight (628) AD, Mohamed went to perform Umrah, with one thousand and four hundred of his companions, taking with them only weapons of travelers. As Quraish mobilized to repel Mohamed away from Kaaba, he sent Othman bin Affan to them, confirming that he did not come to invade them. However, it was commonly reported that Othman was killed. Then, Mohamed called for the pledge of allegiance to death, so there was the pledge of Ridwan (the Approval.)

Peace Treaty: Quraish sent their ambassadors to discuss with Mohamed, who announced his prior acceptance of any plan to honor the House, Kaaba. After Urwa ibn Mas’ud, Suhail bin Amr came, and a peace treaty was signed. This treaty aimed to save the blood, for ten years, where people went out to take care of their interests. It has been known in history as reconciliation of Al-Hudaybiyah (Suleh Al-Hudaybiyah,) and Quran called it a manifest victory.

Umrah of the case: Terms of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah included that Muslims would not go to Kaaba that year, on conditions that people of Mecca would get out of it for them the following year, so they could enter it as pilgrims and stay in it for three days; which actually happened. This was known as Umrah of Al-Hudaybiyah or Umrah of the case. The treaty also gave the permission for other tribes to join it as an ally of either Mohamed or Quraish.

The conquest of Mecca: Two tribes that joined the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah had old feuds. When Quraish provided aid to the tribe that was their ally to kill men of the other one, the tribe which was Mohamed’s ally considered that a violation of the treaty and sought help of Mohamed, who conquered and entered Mecca, with an army of ten thousand men, the twentieth (20) of Ramadan, eight (8) years after migration, around 630 (AD). He cleansed it of idols, made the call to prayer (Azan) to be heard from above the Kaaba and forgave the people of Mecca, saying to them: “Go! For you are free.”

Quran: It is the timeless miracle and the Book of Revelation, which was revealed to Mohamed, during a period of twenty three (23) years he lived since revelation came to him for the first time. Quran displays the origins of beliefs and rituals, conditions and limitations of laws and transactions and virtues of ethics and values. It refers to the signs of Allah in His creation, talks about the human and the devil and tells the stories of prophets, death of rejecters, lessons of history, death, rebirth and the situations of the Resurrection.

Quran came to confirm the previous heavenly books, dominating them, since it is the last word of the Lord to the people. It is the only book whose verses were written down in the life time of the Prophet, has been put together in one paper (Mushaf) unanimously by his companions and was subject to neither modification nor distortion. This is clearly obvious through comparing the last Mushaf to the first one.

Miracles of Mohamed: His biggest miracle is the Quran, which put poets and preachers to silence and challenged both mankind and the jinn to bring a chapter (surah) like it. The challenge is still open, in a brilliant scientific miracle and an unparalleled legislative miracle from an illiterate man of a community of the ignorance, the pre-Islamic society. There is also the miracle of The Isra and Mi’raj (two parts of a Night Journey,) which was singled out for Mohamed, in addition to tens of frequently reported paranormals.

Hypocrites: Hypocrisy is to publicly declare faith while disbelief in secret, which Quran talked about as social and psychological phenomena. Mohamed has known the hypocrites, through their mark and tone of their speech, but he did not punish them. Rather, he kept doing the best with them, aiding their poor and visiting their patient. Quran listed signs of hypocrites, most notable of which are lying, breaking promise, dishonesty, immorality with rivals, laziness in performing acts of worship, duplicity and arrogance.

Wives of Mohamed: Quran permitted Mohamed to marry a large number of women, comparing to what it made lawful for other men. It made Mohamed’s wives “mothers of believers” and prohibited their marriage after him. Each one of them had a well known human story. Among them, there were a daughter of the closest ones, a daughter of the most enmity people, one from Bani Hashem, another of Quraish, of Arabs, a Jews, a Christians, of Copts, from urban, of Bedouin, young girl and elder woman.

Among Mohamed’s wives, Khadija was characterized as the first to support and aid him and the only wife to have boys and girls from him. Also, he did not marry another woman until she died. After her death, his wives respectively are: Soda bint Zama, Aisha bint Abu Bakr, Hafsa bint Umar, Ramlah bint Abu Sufyan, Umm Salamah, Zainab bint Jahsh, Zainab bint Khuzaymah, Maymouna bint Al Harith, Jouweyriya bint Al Harith, Safia bint Houyey and the Coptic Maria.

His children: Khadija gave birth of three male children for Mohamed, namely: Al Qassem, Abdullah and Al Tiyib, in Mecca, and the Coptic Maria bore his son, Abraham, in Almadinah. His sons have died before puberty. For his daughters, they are four, as well: Zainab, Raqiya, Umm Kulthum and Fatima. Three of them died in his life, while Fatima was the fastest member of his family to die after him. No descendants to any of Mohamed’s children except for Fatima are known.

The death of Mohamed: Mohamed, the last of messengers and prophets, died on Monday, the twelfth (12) of Rabi’ Alawal in the eleventh (11) year after his migration, corresponding to the eighth (8) of June, six hundred and thirty two (632) AD, after a month-long suffering.

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