The heavens and the earth were founded by Justice, for that God sent messengers with clear proofs, and sent down with them the Book and the balance.
is a concept that refers to the integrity and moderation, and putting things in their relevant contexts, in place and times and with their pertinent considerations. Among the dozens of definitions for justice, scholars, philosophers and experts agree, that the meaning of “giving everyone his right” is one of its definitions, even the estimated right and what it is and its various areas remained an object of contention.
As the context, in time, space, and situation, surrounding the concept of justice, are variables, may relate to the constant value of Justice, remaining fixed, as supreme value of the human conscience, since his emergence, but that is nevertheless subject to the discretion and to the prevailing reference in the community, as formed by the rules, laws and customs collection and traditions that are derived from religion and instinct, or reason, consideration, and conscience, or subsequent inherits from the previous, that people collude to respect and to refer to that. For such reason, every nation or civilization, conceived its idea about justice, according to its terms of reference, where ideal may be confused with reality, and religion with intellect, and the unseen with the real, and history with present, and the circumstances of ambition and high hopes of peoples. Therefore what is considered justice in a society, at a time or space, may be injustice in another community, at another time and in another place. As wise men say, the man does not achieve justice outside himself, without carrying justice inside himself.
The justice is the most common subject in the religious texts, and in philosophy and behavior researches, in the social and economic studies, and in citizenship and the rights issues, and also in grievances or demands; Koran use the word “straight”, which is the most common synonym of justice. Koran also assigns to people the responsibility to set justice, considering it as supreme finality of religion. Koran ordered to carry out justice, which requires reciprocity, in good or evil and links it with fine and goodness in faith, which means to reply by good to evil, and to good by more goodness.
Justice was cited in the Koran, which is the dominant Muslims reference, repeatedly with its formulas and its various synonyms, in more than three hundred verses. It was cited as general direct order, sometime as order to carry out judgment, and sometimes as an order to institute equality and equity, and also as a call to truthfulness in testimony. It is also a base and condition in the contracts and agreements. It came as praise combining sometimes truth and justice. The Koran used repeatedly the word straight as a synonym for justice, and combines them sometimes, and used the word bushel and balance to express justice.
Koran did not only mobilized hundreds of verses that order to do justice and its synonyms, but gave in a similar number of verses condemning injustice and its synonyms: aggression, , tyranny; and vowed wrongdoers revenge by the powerful, by God.
It indicated that injustice is the most frequently cause of God’s wrath and torment, that lead to destruction of communities and destruction of civilizations.
Koran does not specify an area for injustice, but every form of non justice, that can affect the life of the individual and the stability of society, is called injustice, whether it takes the form of economic exploitation or eating money unlawfully, or related to social relations, exploitation and forced labor, or that takes the form of political tyranny, arbitrariness or not adopting same standards for all.
The Koran considers taking over limits as a worst level of injustice, linking that with tyranny, and bad rulers who usurp others affairs without their will. Koran called tyranny “fetish” and represented it by Pharaoh.
The meaning of injustice in the Koran expands to include individual injustice to himself, any act exceeding the Islamic standard of justice, is considered as injustice, even the individual does that against himself, or for himself, Islam considers that he is doing wrong to himself, for that repentant from sin, are usually repeating Koranic expression: “Lord, we have wronged ourselves”
As in the Koran, the conciseness speech of the prophet of Islam, talked about the subject of justice, where he said that persons who adjust in their judgment and with their parents will be, on the Day of Resurrection, with God, on rostrums of light, and he said also that the ruler carrying out justice is among people of Paradise, and the fair ruler will be under God shadow, when there is no other shadow but only His shadow. To set justice between boys, wives is a duty and condition. Prophet warns that the God forbidden oppression to Himself and make it forbidden for humans, then he remembered that oppression is darkness, in Day of Resurrection Day of Resurrection and the oppressed call is received by God without veil.
Those are prominent features in the original Islamic texts, from Koran and from prophetic guidance, which have set a comprehensive and integral theory of justice in Islam, that people used its shadows in life of the Prophet Muhammad, and during most of the days of his conformable succession, but after that, the level of setting justice in the society varied, especially after the battles of civil war called “Great Sedition”, and the dominance of the mordacious Kingdom, who represented a setback in the practices of governance in Islam, which was based on the public consultation (Shura), as the principles of the Koran that the Prophet has set and as illustrated by ancients followers of prophet.
It is true that the ruler and the Koran guidance was separated, and free thought has receded, with a successive States ruled families, clans and groups, and the mental activity for scientists and thinkers, was restricted to metaphysics issues and personal status, but the Justice remained, and remains the spirit of Islam and the main central value in it, whether Muslims committed to carry out Islam order or have deviated from that, because Islamic law (Sharia), in its immortal origins and status, does not endorse any type or level of behavior that disrupts justice, but paired the Justice, which means to achieve the right, with fine and goodness in faith, which means the most preferred in the consequence.
Justice in Islam includes every human life aspects, with its various dimensions, it is the criterion and sensitive balance, which indicates immediately, every trace of corruption or manipulation, in the course of life, in all its aspects. The advantage of fine and goodness in faith appears here, with its impact in bridging gaps, and in healing the wounded, that can result from imposing justice, by tolerance and sublimation to good morals.
God has forbidden injustice, and enjoined Justice and ordered to achieve and restitute rights to their owners , that signify recognizing right to equality between the parties, without any discrimination or favor, in forcing them to accept justice, including punishment of wrongdoer , and warning them that if they don’t respect justice process, God shall almighty put the straight scales to judge all.
Thus, the Islamic law imposed the application of justice and to adopt that as behavior, not only in the judiciary issues or in disputes, but in the individual’s relationship, with himself, and with others, as governor or governed. Islam warned about the consequences of compromising justice, even with himself, or with parents and relatives. Islam call to adopt fine and goodness in faith, in promising good reward for who do that, in dealing with others, after being able to achieve justice for himself, the emblem in that is: reply by the best manner.
Muslims need today, to achieve justice, in the contemporary reality, to read newly whole those principles, values, orders and interdictions that abound in the original Islamic law texts, indicating what God has imposed in his book, and through speech of His Messenger, and the way that he ordered to take, in interpreting such texts according the modern concepts of justice, in all its dimensions and various humanitarian aspects, which are now living reality in other societies.
The justice concept is today perceived with different aspects, being classified in multiple levels. When justice is based on the idea that an individual has right to it as a human being, this is natural justice, but when justice is founded on references, that the community receives with acceptance, such justice is called Conventional. So if justice consists to give individual his right, without regard to social status, it is called reciprocal justice. But the social justice requires an overdose of equality among members of society.
The political justice remains the most intractable to achieve in the life of people, because it requires a charter or covenant or constitutional contract, that society agree on by mutual consent, to ensure basic freedoms, and to support social equality, and respect the natural rights; and to ensure economic justice, because there is no Justice without allowing all to share the national wealth, and determining fair rules for distribution, taking into account the extent of the need and the size of the contribution to the production.
The criminal justice, which carries the significance of justice, for the majority of people, shall be considered as the primary defense line of the society, against crime. Whose mission is not only to punish the criminals , but also to correct behavior of wrongdoers against the law that society apply, while ensuring the right of everyone to the trial fair, allowing him to defend himself, until the end of the trial decision that concludes objectively with conviction of guilty or innocence.
Finally, the concept of justice, in the various references and systems, dominates the concepts of its approach, including the concept of liberty, and the concept of equality, as each one of those concepts stops at the borders of exaggeration and overstepping the limit, but in justice, there is no excesses at all, no limits to the stands . The community can has a point of saturation in freedom or equality, for example, or in any other values, excepting justice, which does not have any access to the point of saturation for the community, but the need for more justice.